This is a list of primary data sources that are helpful for power system modeling of Europe. For other open data projects that collect or vizualize data see data projects.
ENTSO-E Transparency, the central data platform of the European transmission system operators, provides a lot of data as required in EU regulation 543/2013. The database can be accessed through the website and several download options.
In practice, the confusing design and slow response times make the website hard to use and a lot of the data is missing. Documentation on what the data mean and on how to use the platform is inconsistent and scattered across multiple pages and documents. Some useful resources are:
- The FAQ, the Help Center and the page for new users.
- The Detailed Data Descriptions for documentation on the meaning of the individual datasets.
- The overview of data download options. For bulk access to the data in CSV format we recommend the FTP solution.
The platform only features data for 2015-01-05 onwards.
- 1 Electricity consumption
- 2 Capacity and generation by technology
- 3 Cross-border trade
- 4 Power plant data
- 5 Hydro power data
- 6 Price data
- 7 CO2 emissions and allowance prices
- 8 Wind and solar power time series
- 9 Weather data
- 10 Country-specific data portals
1 Electricity consumption
1.1 European load data
ENTSO-E Hourly Load Data is available through three different gateways:
- ENTSO-E Data Portal (data up to 2015). Features a comparatively convenient download option (all countries in monthly data sheets), but was decommissioned at the end of 2016. Note that “hourly load values” are often inconsistent with “monthly consumption”. The difference is not fully captured by the “representativity factor“. It will be replaced by
- ENTSO-E Power Statistics (data from 2016). Allows download only for one country per month.
- ENTSO-E Transparency (data from 2015). With the limitations mentioned above.
IEA Monthly Electricity Statistics. Monthly electricity consumption for OECD member countries; methodology aligned with Eurostat.
1.2 German load data
AG Energiebilanzen. Yearly energy balances for Germany, including yearly electricity consumption by sector.
BDEW Strom-Kennzahlen. Monthly power consumption for Germany.
Statistisches Bundesamt. Monthly power consumption for Germany.
2 Capacity and generation by technology
2.1 Installed capacity
IRENA RE Capacity Statistics. Installed renewable capacity since 2006 for all countries world-wide. PDF.
Eurostat nrg_113a. Click on the plus-sign next to the “Energy Indicator” drop-down menu to select more fuel types. Comprehensive coverage and xls/csv download option. Does not cover the most recent year.
Eurelectric Power Statistics. Freely accessible (ignore the price tag), somewhat outdated. However, to our knowledge this is the only comprehensive source of combined heat and power (CHP) data. PDF.
EurObserv’ER Database. Different renewables-related statistics covering all EU member countries.
IEA PVPS. Global solar PV capacities dating back to 1992.
United Nations Statistics Division Energy Statistics Database. Annual capacity data.
ENTSO-E Statistical Factsheet. Annual data on installed capacity as well as generation and physical flows by technology and country 2009–2015. PDF files.
ENTSO-E mid-term Adequacy Forecast. (Formerly System Outlook and Adequacy Forecasts) Includes downloadable datasets of generation capacity (XLSX).
Eurostat nrg_105m. Monthly electricity generation for European countries. Click on the plus-sign next to the “Energy Indicator” drop-down menu to select fuel types. Comprehensive coverage and xls/csv download option. Does not cover the most recent year.
IEA Monthly electricity statistics. Monthly electricity generation since 2007 by fuel category for OECD member countries. User-friendly XLS-download of the entire dataset available.
ENTSO-E Production Data. Monthly generation by fuel type—more detailed fuel categories than the IEA.
ENTSO-E Inventory of Generation. Includes, inter alia, detailed hydro categories.
ENTSO-E Statistical Factsheet. Annual data on installed capacity as well as generation and physical flows by technology and country since 2009. PDF files.
BP Statistical Review. Annual generation data for many countries globally, some dating back to 1965.
2.3 National sources
|Country||Data type||Source||Type of Institution||Description||Type of document||Coverage|
|AT||Aggregated capacities||e-control||Regulatory Authority||Engpassleistung nach Kraftwerkstypen zum 31. Dezember 2014||Statistics||2013, 2014|
|BE||List of generation units||ELIA||Transmission System Operator||Overview of Generating Facilities||Statistics||actual|
|BG||Aggregated capacities||TSO Bulgaria||Transmission System Operator||Generation Capacities||Report||2012|
|CH||Aggregated capacities||BFE||Ministry||Schweizerische Elektrizitätsstatistik (Electricity statistics)||Report||1998-2014|
|CZ||Aggregated capacities||ERU||Regulatory Authority||Yearly Report on Operations||Report||2010-2014|
|DE||Aggregated capacities||BMWi||Ministry||Energiedaten (Energy Data)||Statistics||1990-2014|
|List of generation units||BNetzA||Regulatory Authority||List of Power Plants (>10 MW)||Statistics||actual|
|List of generation units||UBA||Environmental Agency||Kraftwerke in Deutschland (Power Plants in Germany, > 100 MW)||Statistics||actual|
|DK||Aggregated capacities||DEA||Energy Agency||Annual Energy Statistics||Statistics||2010-2013|
|EE||Aggregated capacities||Statistics Estonia||National Statistical Office||Capacity and Production of Power Plants||Statistics||1999-2014|
|ES||Aggregated capacities||REE||Transmission System Operator||National Indicators||Statistics||1990-2016|
|FI||Aggregated capacities||Statistics Finland||National Statistical Office||Capacity of Electricity Generation||Statistics||1970-2015|
|FR||Aggregated capacities||RTE||Transmission System Operator||Overview of electrical energy in France||Report & Statistics||Monthly|
|List of generation units||RTE||Transmission System Operator||Installed Capacity of Units||Statistics||actual|
|GR||Aggregated capacities||REA||Regulatory Authority||National Report 2012||Report||2012|
|HR||Aggregated capacities||HOPS||Transmission System Operator||Basic Data||Report||2009-2013|
|HU||List of generation units||Mavir||Transmission System Operator||Planned Installed Generation Capacity||Report||2010-2014|
|IE||List of generation units||Eirgrid||Transmission System Operator||All-Island Generation Capacity Statement||Report||2012-2016|
|IT||List of generation units||Terna||Transmission System Operator||Installed Generation Capacity||Statistics||2010-2014|
|LT||List of generation units||Litgrid||Transmission System Operator||Generation Capacities||Statistics||actual|
|LU||Aggregated capacities||ILR||Regulatory Authority||Centrales de productions au Luxembourg||Statistics||2001-2014|
|LV||Aggregated capacities||Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia||National Statistical Office||Electrical Capacity||Statistics||2007-2014|
|NL||Aggregated capacities||Tennet||Transmission System Operator||Installed Generation Capacity||Statistics||2011-2016|
|NO||Aggregated capacities||Ministry of Petroleum and Energy||Ministry||Facts: Energy and Water Resources in Norway||Report||2013|
|Aggregated capacities||Ministry of Petroleum and Energy||Ministry||Facts: Energy and Water Resources in Norway||Report||2015|
|PL||Aggregated capacities||CIRE||Energy Market Information Center||Moc zainstalowana (Installed Capacity)||Statistics||2014|
|PT||Aggregated capacities||REN||Transmission System Operator||Technical Data||Report||2013, 2014|
|RO||Aggregated capacities||Anre||Regulatory Authority||Report||Report||2013, 2014|
|SE||Aggregated capacities||Svensk Energi||Energy Agency||Statistics Sweden||Report||2013|
|SI||Aggregated capacities||Agencija za energijo||Regulatory Authority||Report on the Energy Sector in Slovenia||Report||2011-2014|
|SK||Aggregated capacities||Statistical Office of Slovakia||National Statistical Office||Energy Statistics||Report||2008-2014|
|UK||Aggregated capacities||Department of Energy & Climate Change UK||Ministry||Plant Capacity||Statistics||2010-2014|
3 Cross-border trade
ENTSO-E Incerconnector Data. Hourly physical flows, scheduled flows, and NTCs from 2011 to 2014—but be prepared for quite some work to clean up the files.
CASC flow-based market coupling data. Available transfer capacity, price spreads, and other data.
4 Power plant data
Netztransparenz. Renewable power plants, provided by the four German TSO’s. See also 50Hertz here and here, Amprion, TenneT, and TransnetBW, which individually provide data on renewable power plants. Reportings are discontinued since mid/end 2014. EnergyMap (see Data Projects) aggregates and processes the data.
BNetzA Kraftwerksliste. German power plants, collected by the regulators. Downloadable as CSV/XLS.
BNetzA List of power plant closure notifications German power plants scheduled for final or temporary shutdown or mothballing, collected by the regulators. Downloadable as CSV.
UBA Kraftwerksliste. By Umweltbundesamt, XLS.
BDEW: projects. Planned power plants, only as PDF.
4.2 Other European countries
DE, NO Hydro power plants of renpass. The open source simulation energy model renpass (Renewable Energy Pathways Simulation System) includes a detailed register of hydropower plants, pump storage, and reservoirs. You can find the data in the renpass MySQL database. Last update 2014.
DE AT CH EEX Transparency. Provides geographic information for some power plants.
GB National Grid: Projects. Planned power plants.
FR RTE. Power plants >100MW, downloadable as XLS.
ES Spanish Industry and Energy Ministry. Spanish power plants. Distinguishes between ordinary power plants and those under the feed-in tariff scheme (“regimen especial”).
NL TenneT. Dutch power plants.
BE ELIA. Belgium power plant list, downloadable as XLS.
4.3. Global datasets
Global Energy Observatory. The Global Energy Observatory (GEO) lists powerplants by country and fuel type. It covers 40–95% of installed capacity of European countries (self-reported).
industryAbout. Global list of powerplants.
CARMA. Carbon Monitoring for Action, a database that lists 60,000 power plants (self-reported).
4.4 Renewable power plants in Europe
An extended version of the following table with more information is available for download (XLSX).
|Country||Plant Types||Restrictions||Source||Direct link||Precise location data||Updates|
|Hydro, thermal, wind||Verbund power plants only, detailed data without gaps||Verbund||No||Unclear|
|Hydro, biomass, district heating||TIWAG power plants only||TIWAG||detailed info for large plants||No||Unclear|
|BE||Wind, biogas, biomass, hydro||Flanders only||VREG||Power plant list||Postcode||Probably annual|
|Solar||Flanders only||VREG||Solar statistics Flanders||No||Probably annual|
|Wind||ELIA||No||Several times a month|
|Solar||ELIA||No||Several times a month|
|BG||All||-||Statistical Institute of Bulgaria||Energy balance||No||Annual|
|Hydro||Plants > 3 MW||Swiss water management association||No||Unclear, probably annual|
|Solar||Data could be incorrect or incomplete||Solar.ch||No||Annual until 2013|
|Solar||Aggregate national data only||Federal office of Energy||No||Annual|
|Wind, solar, biomass, hydro||-||Federal office of Energy||Postcode (+ street for units > 30 MW)||Annual|
|CZ||Wind||>100 MW plants only, no information on completeness||Czech Society for Wind Energy||No||Unclear|
|Wind||Plants ≤ 5MW||Czech Energy Agency for Renewable||Available||Unclear|
|Wind||not up to date, discontinued||Calla||Available||None|
|Hydro||plants < 1 MW||Czech Energy Agency for Renewable||Available||Unclear|
|Hydro||Not up to date||Calla||No||None|
|Solar||Not up to date||Elektrarny.pro||No||Unclear|
|Solar||Incomplete||Czech Energy Agency for Renewable||Available||Unclear|
|Solar||Not up to date||Calla||No||None|
|Biogas||-||Czech Energy Agency for Renewable||Available||Unclear|
|Biogas||Not up to date||Calla||No||None|
|DK||Wind||Scattered data may be missing or inaccurate||ens||Chart||UTM||Monthly|
|EE||All||Capacity not available for most power sources||Statistical office Estonia||No||Annual|
|Wind||-||Estonian Wind energy association||No||Unclear|
|All||Estonian Energy plants only||Estonian Energy||No||Unclear|
|EL||All||-||Regulatory authority for Energy||Charts||No||Unclear|
|ES||Wind||Installations since 2001||Government of Aragon||Chart||No||Annual|
|Wind||Data for Aragon||Government of Aragon||No||Annual|
|Solar||Data for Aragon||Government of Aragon||Chart||No||Annual|
|Hydro||Major plants only||IBERDROLA||No||Unclear|
|FI||Wind||No small systems||VTT||Public statistic||Postcode||Annual|
|All||No private or small power plants||Energy Agency Finland||Chart||Postcode||Probably as needed|
|FR||Wind||-||MEDDE||Statistics||No||Three times a year|
|Solar||-||MEDDE||Statistics||No||Three times a Year|
|Biogas, solid biomass, waste, wind, geothermal, hydropower, solar by departement||Data subject to purchase obligation from 2000 only||MEDDE||Statistics||No||Annual|
|Biomass, wind, geothermal, hydro, solar by municipality||Data subject to purchase obligation from 2000 only||MEDDE||Statistics||No||Annual|
|HR||All||-||HEP Group||Statistics (p.25)||No||Annual|
|HU||Wind||-||Hungarian Wind energy association||Chart||No||Probably annual|
|IE||Wind||Wind farms only, outdated||Seai||Chart||No||No regular publication|
|Hydro||-||Irish hydro power association||No||Unclear|
|LI||Hydro, biogas, solar||-||Statistical office||Energy statistic (chart 6)||No||Annual|
|LU||Wind, biogas, solar, hydro||Enovos group plants only, including foreign plants||Enovos group||No||Unclear|
|MK||All||-||Macedonian Energy Agency||No||Unclear|
|NL||Wind||All Dutch wind projects are listed||Wind statistics NL||Available||Unclear|
|All||-||Central Bureau of Statistics||No||Annual|
|NO||Wind turbines Norway||Large plants only||NVE||Document||No||Annual|
|PL||All||-||Polish Information and Foreign Investment Agency||Statistics||No||Probably annual|
|PT||Wind||Only data from the project||ENEOP||No||Unclear|
|RO||All||No individual data available, after 2009 only small hydropower plants||Transelectrica||Document||No||Unclear|
|All||No individual data, after 2009 only small hydropower plants||Transelectrica||Document||No||Unclear|
|Biogas, biomass, solar, wind, hydro||Data are outdated||Energy Centre Bratislava||Document||Available||Unclear|
|SI||Solar||Slovenian pv portal||No||Unclear|
|SE||Wind||>3 MW turbines only||Vindstat.com||Statistics||No||Monthly|
|UK||Anaerobic digestion, hydro, micro CHP, other, solar, wind||-||Department of Energy & climate change||Statistics||No||Annual|
|Various||Wind||No information of completeness, no small plants||Windpower.net||Available||Unclear|
5 Hydro power data
5.1 Nordic region
SE Svensk Energi. Swedish hydro power data (Swedish). XLS-download requires registration.
SE Svenska Kraftät. Hourly generation data (Swedish).
FI Finnish Energy. Monthly hydro power generation in Finland (Finnish).
5.2 Alps region
FR eaufrance. Day-by-day river flow data (French).
FR RTE. Aggregated French hydro power reservoir levels by week.
CH Hydro runoff data. River runoff data for Swiss hydrological network.
6 Price data
Energinet.dk. Fabulous website of the Danish TSO, providing day-ahead spot prices for DE/AT, NO, SE, DK (all bidding zones), dating back to 2002.
OMIE. Extensive archive of Spanish and Portugese price and market data.
EXAA. Spot price data for DE/AT from the Energy Exchange Austria from 2002 to today.
DE Activation (50Hertz). Activation of secondary control in Germany (Netzregelverbund) and Europe (IGCC), starting in 2010.
GB Imbalance Price (Elexon). The UK has a two-price system, featuring the System Sell Price (SSP) and the System Buy Price (SBP). Elexon provides price data via the Balancing Mechanism Reporting System. See guidance.
UCTE Network frequency. Time series from RTE and 50Hertz (users have reported bad quality of 2015 data). Visualized UCTE live data without data download at Netzfrequenzmessung.de, Swissgrid, Stromhaltig, and Netzfrequenz.info.
7 CO2 emissions and allowance prices
7.1 Emission data
UNFCCC greenhouse gases inventories. Greenhouse gases by country and activity (industry, transport, power, …) from 1990 until t-2. XLS file by year.
EDGAR. The Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) by EU’s Joint Research Centre.
CDIAC. The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) is the primary climate-change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy.
OECD. GHG emissions by country, source, and year.
IEA. Emissions data from the International Energy Agency.
CAIT. CAIT Climate Data Explorer: historical emissions by country. Provided by the World Resource Institute.
BP Statistical Review. Annual emissions by country.
EIA. U.S. Energy Information Agency.
World Bank. GHG emissions by country/year.
EEA. EU ETS data viewer; provides aggregated data on emissions and allowances by country, sector, and year. Data stem mainly comes from the EU Transaction Log.
EEA: Trends and projections. Emissions data by country and sector (PDF).
7.2 ETS price data
ICE: EUA prices. Via Quandl.
EEX: Primary auction results. Since 2012, XLS.
8 Wind and solar power time series
Most transmission system operators provide wind and solar generation time series at high resolution. An extended version of the following table with more information is available for download (XLSX).
|AT||EEX Transparency||wind||15'||seperate file||login|
|DE||wind + solar||15'|
|AT||APG||wind||01.01.2010||180 days||csv, xml||15' / 60'||seperate file|
|CZ||ČEPS||wind + solar||01.01.2012||any||csv, xlsx, xml||1' / 15'||n/a|
|50 Hertz||wind||01.01.2005||years||csv||15'||seperate file|
|Transnet BW||wind||01.01.2010||months||csv||15'||same file|
|Netztransparenz||wind||01.04.2011||1 year||csv||15'||seperate file||captcha|
|DK||Energinet DK||wind||01.01.2000||complete||xls||60'||n/a||2 bidding zones|
|FI||Fingrid||wind||28.11.2014||1 year||xls, xml||60'||n/a|
|FR||RTE||wind + solar||15.12.2014||years||xls in zip||60'||seperate file|
|IT||Terna||wind + solar||24.02.2010||days||xls||60'||separate file|
|SE||Svenska Kraftnät||wind||01.01.2002||years||xls||60'||n/a||4 bidding zones|
|wind||06.11.2008||quarters||csv in zip||5'|
9 Weather data
This section links re-analysis weather datasets. Re-analysis or “hindcast” projects use state-of the art weather forecast models with long time series of weather observations. They create consistent series of weather data, often of decades and with a global scope. Such data are often used in power system modelling to create input data, such as wind and solar power generation patterns. Reanalysis.org and NCAR provide a helpful overview of re-analysis models. Data are usually provided in GRIB or NetCDF format and can be very large in size (100s of GB).
An extended version of the following table with more information is available for download (XLSX).
|Institution / Model||Released||Coverage||Spatial Resolution (lat x lon, degrees)||Time Resolution (hours)||Wind Speed Heights||Other Model Heights|
|ECMWF / ERA-40||2004||1957 – 2002||1.125 x 1.125||6||10 m||60|
|ECMWF / ERA-Interim||2006||1979 – present||0.75 x 0.75||6||10 m||60|
|ECMWF / ERA-20C||2012||1900 – 2010||1.125 x 1.25‒2.5||3||10, 100 m||91|
|JMA / JRA-25||2004||1979 – 2004||1.125 x 1.125||6||10 m||40|
|JMA / JRA-55||2013||1958 – present||0.5625 x 0.5625||6||10 m||60|
|NASA / MERRA||2009||1979 – present||0.5 x 0.667||1||2, 10, 50 m||72|
|NASA / MERRA v2||2016 ?||1979 – present||0.5 x 0.625||1||2, 10, 50 m||72|
|NCEP / R2||2001||1979 – 2012||2.5 x 2.5||6||10 m||28|
|NCEP / CFSR||2009||1979 – 2010||0.5 x 0.5||1||10 m||6|
|NCEP / CFSv2||2011||2011 – present||0.5 x 0.5||6||10 m||6|
|NOAA / 20CRv2||2010||1871 – 2011||2 x 2||6||10 m||28|
Source: Iain Staffell and Stefan Pfenninger, 2016. Using Bias-Corrected Reanalysis for Accurate Wind Power Simulation.
R-Code for deriving wind power production from MERRA-2 wind speeds from the COPA model. Includes examples that walk the reader through all steps of deriving windpower production from gridded wind data and an extensive list of functions for vertical and horizontal interpolation of wind speeds, and for bias correction.
10 Country-specific data portals
10.1 Transparency websites
Since REMIT (Regulation on Wholesale Energy Markets Integrity and Transparency) was adopted in 2011, both system operators and market participants are oblidged to publish a range of “transparency data”. The goal of REMIT is to combat insider trading and market manipulation, hence it is focused on short-term and real-time data. REMIT data are published on different data portals (see Acer overview), some of which also provide longer historical time series. Data portals that narrowly focus on power plant unavailability data are not listed here.